Rainfall is usually the limiting factor for microbial biomass in southern Australia (figure 2). Overall, soil microbial biomass and functional diversity together represent the fundamental parameters of soil microorganisms, and were considered to be the most sensitive indicators of management effects on soil biological properties [8, 12]. Project administration, Principal component analysis (PCA) of the Ecoplate data was performed to characterize the effect of different organic materials on soil microbial community functions, and the differences of the factor scores of the first principal component (PC1) axis among organic material treatments at each soil were tested using a one-way ANOVA by Tukey’s HSD (α = 0.05) test at P < 0.05. Soil microbial communities play an important role in supplying essential nutrients to plants by decomposing various organic matters. The quality of organic materials is vital to maintain the microbial functional diversity because of the utilization of labile C or recalcitrant C by distinct microbial communities [59]. A soil pH near 7.0 is most suitable for the microbial biomass. It is suggested that the microbial biomass and dehydrogenase activity expressed on a soil organic matter basis could become useful … Currently, these Chinese cropland soils have the obvious trend of acidification because of excessive N fertilizer application when compared with those soils 30 years ago [34]. As a result, AWCD and McIntosh index were low in Calcaric Cambisol because of its high initial pH (Table 1) at the end of the 1st month. where Ci is the absorbance of well i and R is the absorbance of the control well. Nevertheless, at the end of the 12th month (Fig 2) the crop residue amendments with high C/N ratio induced significantly higher MBC and MBN than the manure amendments. Supervision, The Luvic Phaeozem derived from the quaternary loess sediments was located in Gongzhuling County, Jilin Province; this region is characterized by temperate sub-humid climate, with an annual average temperature of 4–5°C and an average annual rainfall of 450–600 mm. Soil temperature (ST) and soil moisture (SM) , which were affected by grazing intensity and patterns , were significant abiotic factors affecting Rs and soil microbial biomass . The C/N ratio of organic materials has generally been shown to be a good predictor of the decomposition of organic materials [45, 48], and organic materials with low C/N ratio can supply sufficient nutrients for microbes [49–50], which was shown by the significantly higher MBC and MBN in manure treatments than those in crop residue treatment at the end of the 1st month (Table 2, Fig 2). Project administration, Microbially mediated processes in constructed wetlands are mainly dependent on hydraulic conditions, wastewater properties, including substrate and nutrient quality and availability, filter material or soil type, plants, and different environmental factors. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Soil properties that affect microbial biomass are clay, soil pH, and organic C (figure 3). In China in 2011, 863 million tons of crop straw and 3 trillion tons of livestock manure were produced [5–6]. Conceptualization, Writing – original draft, Aliquots of 150 μl of the 10−3 suspension was incubated in each well of Biolog Eco plates at 28°C and the absorbance was measured at 590 nm with an Emax precision microplate reader (Biolog, Hayward, CA, USA). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Funding: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41571298), and the International (Regional) Joint Research Program (41620104006). At the end of the 12th month in the present study, the microbial functional diversity indices were positively correlated with C/N ratio of organic materials (Table 5), and the microbial communities in crop residue treatments were separated from those in the control treatment in the three soils (Fig 4); this is because the decomposable C sources from crop residue, including cellulose and hemicellulose, and the lower lignin content in crop residues when compared with that in manures supported high microbial functional diversity [17, 44, 60]. Conceptualization, For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click [Article in Chinese] Li D(1), Wu Z, Chen L, Zhu P, Ren J, Liang C, Peng C, Gao H. Author information: (1)Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China. PLOS ONE, Sep 2018 Ling Li, Minggang Xu, Mohammad Eyakub Ali, Wenju Zhang, Yinghua Duan, Dongchu Li. Ferralic Cambisol is found in the subtropical region with an acidic soil environment [35], Calcaric Cambisol is found in the warm temperate region with a weak basic or neutral soil environment, and Calcaric Cambiso is found in the cold temperate region with a weak acidic or neutral soil environment. On the sampling day, each bag was weighed after the attached soil on the outer wall of the bag was carefully removed. Different aspects of the presence and activities of microorganisms in the soil e.g. Investigation, No, Is the Subject Area "Crops" applicable to this article? Yes Yes Among all enzymes in the soil environment, soil dehydrogenases (EC 1.1.1.) Carbon sources can provide energy for microorganisms [46–47], and microorganisms can grow rapidly when they encounter abundant C sources, e.g., the significant increase in MBC in organic materials amendment treatments when compared with the control treatment in the three soils at the end of the 1st month (Fig 2). Meanwhile, the low pH in the Ferralic Cambisol (pH = 5.2) would reduce the utilization of labile substrate by soil microbes [56–57] because of the toxic exchangeable Al in low pH soil [58]; however, the integrated effect of SOC, clay content and organic materials amendment could affect the response of microbial biomass to pH as shown by the non-significance of pH in explaining microbial biomass in the stepwise multiple regression analysis. Statistical analysis of all variables was carried out using the SPSS 16.0 software package. Singh JS(1), Gupta VK(2). Different letters indicate significant differences at P < 0.05 among different materials in the same soil. The lignin content of organic materials significantly influenced H’ and D at the end of the 1st month (P < 0.05). e0203812. The microbial biomass is affected by factors that change the water or carbon content of soil, and include soil type, climate and management practices. Soil microbial biomass represents the amount of microbes in soil, and was successfully used to detect short-term changes in soil functioning to predict organic C accumulation in soil under organic management [20]. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, The chemical characteristics of these organic materials were shown in Table 2. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812.t002. The correlations between different abiotic factors and microbial groups described in this manuscript indicate both the complexity of the soil environment and its sensitivity to various stimuli. It increases with reducing soil water content or increasing suction up Yes It was associated with increased utilization of carbohydrates, amino acids and amine in Ferralic Cambisol and Calcaric Cambisol, and carbohydrates, amino acids, carboxylic acids and polymer in Luvic Phaeozem. The management and environmental factors controlling microbial biomass and community structure were identified in a three-year field experiment. Basic physicochemical properties of three soils. At the end of the 12th month, the C substrate use pattern was changed in the three soils. The differences among treatments with separation of means by Tukey’s HSD (α = 0.05) test at P < 0.05. 2018; 13(9):e0203812 (ISSN: 1932-6203) https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812.t003. Organic material quality played a predominant role in controlling the microbial biomass at both sampling periods, and the main parameters of organic matter were C/N ratio and N content. In each bag, 200 g (oven-dried basis) experimental soil (Ferralic Cambisol, Calcaric Cambisol, Luvic Phaeozem) was thoroughly mixed with organic material at a ratio of 15 g C kg−1 soil, which was equivalent to 34 t C ha−1 returned to the soil. Abstract. Writing – review & editing, Roles Factors affecting soil microbial biomass and functional diversity with the application of organic amendments in three contrasting cropland soils during a field experiment. A one-way ANOVA was used to determine the differences of soil properties, chemical characteristics of organic material, and the above microbial parameters among organic material treatments at each soil. Yes At the end of the 1st month, the contributions of soil type and organic material type were significant in explaining the variance in MBC and MBN, and explained 6.9 and 43.6% of the variance in MBC, as well as 9.3 and 50.9% of the variance in MBN, respectively (P < 0.05; Table 3). Investigation, The amount of different organic materials in each bag was described in S1 Table. No, Is the Subject Area "Maize" applicable to this article? Methodology, Soil Sci. Data curation, Six organic materials (WS: wheat straw, CS: corn straw, WR: wheat root, CR: corn root, PM: pig manure, CM: cattle manure), and three contrasting soils (Ferralic Cambisol, Calcaric Cambisol and Luvic Phaeozem) were chosen. The quality of organic materials affects the microbial biomass and community structure [13–16]. In China, large amounts of agricultural byproducts are produced because high agricultural productivity is being pursued to meet the food demands of the huge population. In agricultural systems, the available organic materials generally include crop residues and livestock manures; crop residues are characterized by higher C:N ratio and lower available nutrient content in comparison with manure [15]. 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